Shipyards from the Ottoman period to the present
The rise of the Ottoman Empire, one of the greatest empires of world history, which dominated the area of 5 million 200 thousand square kilometers in 3 continents, and maintained its existence for 600 years on the 3 continents, has undoubtedly played an important role in the protection of the sea.
During the Ascension period, The supremacy of the sea established by the Ottoman Empire, one of the greatest empires of world history, which dominated the area of 5 million 200 thousand square kilometers in 3 continents, and maintained its existence for 600 years on the 3 continents, plays an important role in its success and protection of its power.
Ottoman naval fleet, such as Baştarda, Mavna and Kadırga rowing ships, Şayka, Şahtur and Kancabaş naval ships, Çekeleve, Çamlıca transport ships, horse Kayığı, Ateş Kayığı and the boats accompanying the navy, Göke, Barça, Ağribar and Kalyon were built in the Haliç. The establishment of the shipyard is based on the reign of Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror.
The development and spread of the shipyard was during the reign of Ottoman Emperor Yavuz Sultan.
In the establishment of the shipyard; It was the decisive factor for the Ottoman Empire to struggle for sovereignty in the sea as well as in the land, which was dependent on war and the gains of the war until a certain period of time. In addition to the protection and defense of the newly conquered lands, the need for a strong navy also required the existence of a local shipyard. With the period of stagnation; As a result of the difficulty of acquiring new territories in the Ottoman Empire and the loss of land, the maritime power began to be used for defense purposes. This situation has expanded the construction of ships and other sea vehicles, which are needed by the naval force of the Ottoman Empire, in the local shipyards.
Haliç Shipyards, which was established from Kasımpaşa towards Hasköy direction, has been shaped as Haliç, Camialtı, Taş Kızak and Hasköy shipyards in the area extending from Kasımpaşa creek to Camialtı square. The shipyard became a guarantee for the Empire in the shipbuilding area by adding new ships to the maritime power of the Ottoman Empire.
One of the historical victories of shipyard was that the Ottoman fleet, which was burned and destroyed in the Inebah Sea War in 1571, rebuilt in five months by building more than 150 squads.
Tersane-i Amire, which is also known as the Istanbul Shipyard, started to divide by the year 1913, the period of the fall of the Ottoman Empire. As a result of the war, today the shipyard, known as the Taş Kızak Shipyard, was left to the navy, while the Haliç and Cami sub-sections were transferred to the company, which was founded, the civil-construction company Osmaniye. A year after the proclamation of the Republic, the Tersane-i Amire merged with the Türkiye Seyr-i Sefain Administration with the order of Atatürk. On July 1, 1933, within the scope of the renovation and modernization works of the shipyard within the factories and ponds, dry ponds were repaired, mechanical tools were renewed and new instruments were purchased.
Subsequently, the shipyards, which went through several stages, merged into the Denizcilik Bank, which was established on March 1, 1952, and the shipbuilding sleds built at 70 and 80 meters tall, improved the ship's ability to build new ships.
6 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
Shipyards were transferred to Türkiye Gemi Sanayi A.Ş in 1983., Turkey ship industry Inc. was acquired in 1984. Turkey Shipbuilding Industry Corporation was included in the scope of privatization with the decision of the Council of Ministers in 1993. Turkey Maritime Inc. merged with Gemi Industry Corporation Inc. in 2002.
Haliç Shipyard, which has become inadequate in terms of infrastructure since it could not be invested for years, in privatization expectation, was allocated to İDO with the protocol signed with TDİ in 2005 after it was transferred to İstanbul Metropolitan Municipality.
As a result of the renovation work that was carried out during the IDO period, the historical stone ponds, hatch and bridge systems were brought into operation in the Haliç Shipyard and the water in the ponds were maintained with the discharge pump center infrastructure. A modern logistics center was established by renewing the electrical lighting, fire circuit and security surveillance systems related to the entire shipyard area. The shipyard management building was renovated and put into operation. The old foundry workshop was transformed into a center where high-speed boats were machine-maintained. Since 1989, unused sleds have been organized and after 20 breaks, three Haliç Ships were built on these sledges. The shipyard, along with its 70-acre site, was allocated to City Lines Inc., one of the affiliates of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality starting from date, 1 October 2010.
Haliç Shipyard, where the headquarters of the city Hatları'nın has about 6 centuries-old history of the Ottoman Empire and today also continues its work building ships leaving traces the history of the Republic of Turkey. Today, in the Haliç Shipyards, passenger boats are repaired, pool maintenance is done.
From the end of the 18th century to the beginning of the 19th century, the Ottoman Empire under the leadership of Sultan Mahmut, who had undergone radical changes in the field of state bureaucracy, science and social life, performed new reforms in The navy as well. One of the reforms was the construction of dry ponds at the Haliç Shipyard.
In the historical Haliç Shipyard, today, three dry pools built in the 18th and 19th centuries, named as 1,2,3 respectively from Azapkapı to Kasımpaşa, are still used in maintenance, repair and pooling of passenger and car ferries.
The dry pools built on the northern coast of the Golden Horn are approximately 8 kilometers long between the Golden Horn and the Marmara Sea. From the centuries, Alibey is filled with alluviums and city residues brought by Kâğıthane streams and other streams flowing into the Golden Horn. Therefore, the depth of the Golden Horn varies between 20-42 meters near the dry ponds.
The thick sedimentary layers formed by the inclination of the main rock and the addition of artificial fillings lead to important geotechnical problems on the shore. There are thick natural and artificial fillings on the bedrock. In a report on the Golden Horn in 1938, it was stated that only one third of the masonry quay walls were not damaged in the Golden Horn Shipyard, which had a total length of 480 meters. The dry ponds at the Haliç Shipyard were built on the main rock in a way that would not be affected by the problematic Haliç fillings.
Dry Pool No. 1: 109 meters length, 22,20 meters width, 10.5 meters depth
Dry Pool No. 2: 81.5 meters height, 17.80 meters wide, 9.86 meters depth
Dry Pool No. 3: 151.05 meters length, 19 meters width, 9 meters depth
The number 3 dry dock built in the 18th century (1796-1799):
At the end of the 19th century, a dry pond for the maintenance of ships was decided at Haliç Shipyard. Proposals were received from French and Swedish engineers in Istanbul. Engineers prepared dry pool projects and construction techniques reports and presented them to the Ottoman authorities.
In 1774-1777, French engineers proposed the system applied by Gorignard in Toulon. In the system applied by Gorignard, 100x30x11 meter wooden caisson was filled with stone and water, and after the water had been emptied, it was built in the dry pool caisson. Following the completion of the construction, the leakage of water from the cracks in the dry pool walls was prevented by pouring concrete pozzolan under water as a result of various attempts.
Swedish engineers on the sea side of the pile of palplan and the continuous evacuation of the water, soil excavation and construction, dry construction will do in the pit, he said.
With regard to the construction of dry ponds at the Haliç Shipyard, the views of technical men were also in favor of the Swedish technique. Thus the tender was given to Swedish engineers. The cost of the implementation of the French dry-pool project was almost double the cost of implementing the Swedish project and played an important role in granting the contract to Swedish engineers.
Under the leadership of the Swedish chief engineer A. E. Rhode, Swedish engineers have opened 18x18x10.5 meters of inspection wells where water can be discharged and identified the exact location where the dry pool can be built. Thus, the staff of the Swedish engineers and technicians and Ottoman technicians, led by Chief Engineer A. E. Rhode, started construction in 1796.
During the construction works, the front of the dry pool area at the Haliç Shipyard was cleaned with a comb, and the wooden pavement was piled on the shore to prevent the sea water from filling the construction pit. The dry pond construction area was excavated at a depth of 37.5 x 75.0 meters and a depth of 10.50 meters.
The construction of the dry dock constructed as Kargir used blue devonian limestones from the quarries of the Bosphorus. The pozzolan mortar consisting of pozzolan (vocanic ash) and lime mixture was applied, which was made of water under hardening and brought from Italy. Pool floor was formed with a thickness of 0.75 meters and was covered with stone. The dry walls, which were built in steps towards the side walls, were completed in 1799.
Shipyard Engineer Rhode, Ship Engineer F.L. Klintberg who worked the construction of dry pool, and the Swedish and Ottoman technical men was awarded by Ottoman Empire.
The dry dock no. 3, which was repaired from time to time, was extended to the land between 1874-1876 by Vasil Kalfa, as a result of the growing size of the ships in the 19th century, with the need for larger sized dry ponds.
Dry pool no. 2 (1821-1825) built in the 19th century:
In the 19th century, in accordance with the evolving needs, the construction of dry ponds No. 2 and No. 1 was carried out at Haliç Shipyard. The dry ponds No 2 and No 1 were built by the people working in the construction of the dry dock no 3.
Head Engineer Ali Bey and Manol Kalfa, who worked in the construction of the first dry pool, started the construction of dry dock No 2 in 1821. In 1822, Ali Bey was replaced by Mühendishane (İ.T.Ü.) 3rd Caliph Abdulhalim Efendi. The construction of dry dock no. 2 was completed in 1825 in the dry construction pit, which was created by pumping wood pavement on the seashore and by continuously draining the water. A scale model of the dry pool was prepared by Abdulhalim Efendi.
Dry pool no. 1 (1857-1870) built in the 19th century
The techniques in the construction of the ponds no. 2 was applied in the construction of the No.1 dry pond.
The tombstone at the shipyard has the following sign:
Halic shipyard today
"I was once Solomon,
I was the ruler of the winds,
I thought I was Sultan Suleyman,
I was the solicitor Suleyman who worked at the shipyard!"
Haliç Shipyard today is located on a 70-acre area covering three dry pools, two sledges and various workshops and historical sites. Located in the center of Istanbul, the distant and near sea history and the most recent history of our maritime shipyard, the Haliç Shipyard hosts the management center of the City Lines.
Haliç Shipyard,located in the center of Istanbul, our distant and near sea history and the most recent history of shipping, hosts the management center of the City Lines.
Haliç Shipyard today serves the private and public sectors as well as the maintenance-attitude of Istanbul's ferries. Currently many active City Lines ferries are built at Haliç Shipyard. Living in the best way as the history continues.